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Title: Color and ink characterization of the Ottoman diplomatics dating from the 13th to the 20th century
Authors: Kantoğlu, Ömer
Ergun, Ece
Kırmaz, Rıdvan
Kalaycı, Yakup
Zararsız, Abdullah
Bayır, Önder
Keywords: Ink
Issue Date: Nov-2018
Publisher: De Gruyter
Citation: Kantoğlu, Ö. ... [ve arkadaşları]. (2018). Color and ink characterization of the Ottoman diplomatics dating from the 13th to the 20th century. Restaurator-International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material, 39(4), 1-24.
Abstract: This study investigates the colors and inks used in the diplomatics of the Ottoman Empire dating from the 13th to 20th century. Elemental and spectroscopic analyses were carried out on more than 150 diplomatics using the µ-XRF, Raman and FTIR spectroscopies, but 10 of them were chosen representative for each century. In addition to the characterization of color and ink, the common or rare use of different colors and inks through ages is discussed. The results of the analysis of the Ottoman diplomatics revealed that minium, vermilion, red ochre and cochineal comprised the red color; lapis lazuli (ultramarine blue), azurite (blue verditer), Prussian blue and smalt were used as the blue color; malachite and green earth provided the green color; massicot was used as the yellow color; yellow lead constituted the orange color; and basic lead carbonate and zinc oxide were the source of the white color have been determined in the diplomatics of the Ottoman Empire. All the illuminations were ornamented with gold to demonstrate the power of Empire and also Emperor. The text script of the diplomatics were written in black, red and gold inks using iron gall- and carbon-based black ink (carbon black/soot), cochineal (red ink) and gold.
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